A lawyer trained and authorized to prepare, conduct and conduct legal proceedings or to defend them as counsel for another person and to advise on legal matters which may or may not result in legal proceedings.
Lawyers apply the law in specific cases. They examine facts and evidence by interviewing clients and reviewing documents, and prepare and file court cases. At trial, they present evidence, cross-examine witnesses, and discuss issues of law and fact. If they don’t win the case, they can request a new trial or appeal to the Court of Appeal.
- In many cases, attorneys can resolve a case without a trial through negotiation, reconciliation, and compromise. In addition, the law empowers individuals to review and set their rights in
- many areas and in a variety of ways, such as through wills, contracts or articles of incorporation, and lawyers can help with many of these provisions. A dynamically developing field of activity
- of lawyers since the 20th century is the representation of clients before administrative commissions and courts as well as before legislative commissions. Lawyer
Attorneys are loyal in their work, including to their clients, the judiciary, society, their peers and themselves. When these loyalties conflict, the standards of the profession seek reconciliation.
Legal practice varies from country to country. In England, solicitors are divided into barristers, who work in the higher courts, and solicitors, who do clerical work and act in the lower courts. In the United States, attorneys often specialize in limited areas of law, such as criminal, divorce, corporate, probate, or personal injury cases, although many are engaged in general practice.
- In France, many specialists and even lay people deal with various aspects of legal work. The most respected is a lawyer whose rank is equivalent to that of a judge or law professor.
- comparable to an English barrister, the main function of a barrister is to act in court. In France, as in most civil law countries, the hearing of witnesses is conducted by a magistrate and not by a
- lawyer as in common law countries. In their memoirs, the lawyers develop their arguments further and point out inconsistencies in witness statements; it is the primary means available to
- lawyers to persuade the court of law and fact. In the past, in addition to barristers, there were
barristers and barristers; The former represented the parties in all procedural matters except pleadings, minutes and negotiating matters, while the latter, in small numbers, were mandated to appear before
certain commercial courts. Today the distinction between Avoués and Solicitors has been abolished in all jurisdictions except Courts of Appeal, where Avoués continue to practice as before.
In addition to these professional groups, there are also lay legal advisers who advise on various legal matters and are often employed by trading companies. Almost all civil law countries have notaries (see Notary Public) who have the exclusive right to deal with paperwork such as marriage certificates and wills.
In Germany, a distinction is mainly made between lawyers and notaries. However, a German lawyer plays an even smaller role in the courtroom than a French lawyer, mainly because presentations on legal issues are limited and litigation is often
left to junior partners. Lawyers are often limited to practicing in the courts of certain jurisdictions. are other limitations as some attorneys practice only before the Courts of Appeal and often require a new attorney at each level of litigation. In Germany, more lawyers are employed in public administration than in common-law countries.
In communist countries, lawyers were often employed as advisers to government agencies, but they had much less power to represent people. See also Attorney; Lawyer; Lawyer.
Irenics, also spelled Guarneri’s or Warnerius (b.1050, Bologna [Italy] – m. 1125 or later Bologna), one of the scholars who revived Roman jurisprudence in Italy, and the first of a long line of famous legal glossaries and law professors (late 11th – mid 13th centuries) at the University of Bologna.
Irnerio, originally a professor of humanities, studied law in Rome at the request of Matilda of Canossa, Countess of Tuscany, who later employed him on diplomatic missions, just as it is believed that Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, first Received legal instruction in Bologna between 1084 and 1088, teaching Bulgarian, the most important of the second generation of Bologna glossers. Irnerius’ most ambitious work was a note on the Corpus juris civilis, also known as the Codex Justinian
, of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I (r. 527-565). Irnerius was one of the first scholars to write such marginal glossaries on Roman law, hence the name of his Glossary School. His Summa Codicis is the first systematic presentation of Roman law in the Middle Ages.
Last Updated History of Art. act as a substitute. The term is also used in the United States to describe an official who appraises real estate for tax purposes.
councilors were appointed across much of continental Europe in the early 20th century to limit the influence of the jury system introduced in the wave of egalitarian reforms that followed the French Revolution. Dissatisfied with the freedom
of the non-professional jury, the legislature, in contrast to the civil tradition of the robed judge, established aldermen to sit and rule alongside the robed judges. This more or less nullified the attempt at independence by professional judges.
In France, a nine-person jury that sits only in the circuit courts, where only the most serious crimes are tried, is actually a panel of experts who must meet three professional judges. The jury can override the judges, as a majority of eight votes is required for a conviction, but in practice the judges are usually able to influence the jury and achieve a majority.
In Germany there are lay judges who sit in groups of two in criminal matters. In specialist courts such as labor courts, judges represent employers and employees. There are also juries in England and the United States in the naval and admiralty courts and various civil courts.
In the former Soviet Union, lay judges replaced juries after the Bolshevik Revolution (1917). In the local people’s courts, the jurors were elected by the people assembled in workers’, employers’ or peasants’ assemblies.
In the higher courts, however, lay judges were elected by the Soviets. The judges sat with the assessors, but a majority of all decision-makers was required to reach a verdict. Because the process could be complex and the lay judges were untrained, they were influenced by professional judges, particularly on legal issues.